Cluster.– Dos o más computadoras ( llamadas nodos o miembros ) que trabajan en conjunto para realizar una tarea.
Hay cuatro tipos de clusters:
- Storage (Almacenamiento)
- High Availability ( Alta disponibilidad)
- Load balancing ( Balanceo de cargas )
- High performance ( Alto desempeño )
Storage clusters provide a consistent file system image across servers in a cluster, allowing the servers to simultaneously read and write to a single shared file system. A storage cluster simplifies storage administration by limiting the installation and patching of applications to one file system. Also, with a cluster-wide file system, a storage cluster eliminates the need for redundant copies of application data and simplifies backup and disaster recovery. Red Hat Cluster Suite provides storage clustering through Red Hat GFS.
High-availability clusters provide continuous availability of services by eliminating single points of failure and by failing over services from one cluster node to another in case a node becomes inoperative. Typically, services in a high-availability cluster read and write data (via read-write mounted file systems). Therefore, a high-availability cluster must maintain data integrity as one cluster node takes over control of a service from another cluster node. Node failures in a high-availability cluster are not visible from clients outside the cluster. (High-availability clusters are sometimes referred to as failover clusters.) Red Hat Cluster Suite provides high-availability clustering through its High-availability Service Management component.
Load-balancing clusters dispatch network service requests to multiple cluster nodes to balance the request load among the cluster nodes. Load balancing provides cost-effective scalability because you can match the number of nodes according to load requirements. If a node in a load-balancing cluster becomes inoperative, the load-balancing software detects the failure and redirects requests to other cluster nodes. Node failures in a load-balancing cluster are not visible from clients outside the cluster. Red Hat Cluster Suite provides load-balancing through LVS (Linux Virtual Server).
High-performance clusters use cluster nodes to perform concurrent calculations. A high-performance cluster allows applications to work in parallel, therefore enhancing the performance of the applications. (High performance clusters are also referred to as computational clusters or grid computing.)